The Genographic Geno2 test

Dr. Spencer Wells resident researcher explorer of the National Geographic Society and his team developed the test Geno 2.0 based on new technologies and ideas that have emerged since the launch of the Genographic Project in 2005. A genotyping chip is used to test nearly 150,000 DNA markers that have been specifically chosen to be able to provide new information on your ancestry.

By participating, you will be able to:
• Discover the migration paths your ancestors followed there are hundreds, even thousands of years.
• Know what percentage of your genome is associated with specific regions of the world.
• You can learn about your Denisovan or Neanderthal ancestry.
• Have the opportunity to share your story and connect with other participants in the Genographic Project, helping to fill the gaps in human history.

Geno Kit 2.0 contains everything you need to begin your journey into the past, including samples of cells taken without pain in the cheeks and the instructions to submit your DNA samples (except for the return postage).

How Your participation helps the Genographic Project:
The Genographic Project is an ambitious attempt to answer fundamental questions about the origin of humanity and how we came to populate the Earth. Using the latest genetic technologies and computing to analyze historical trends in the DNA of participants around the world, the team of world-renowned scientists led by Dr. Spencer Wells, attempts to reveal our migratory history and to better understand the links and differences that define humanity.

As a participant in the Genographic Project, you will be able to contribute your results to the database of the Genographic Project, helping their scientists and researchers working to draw a complete map of the first moments of human history. Participation in the database Genographic based on a voluntary decision and is not a condition for access to your individual results.

In addition, a portion of the revenues from the sale of kits Geno #2.0 will be fed back into the project to support advanced research, cultural conservation fund and contribute to the revitalization of communities around the world through the Genographic Legacy Fund project.

You can find more details about the Genographic Project by visiting its pages directly here(external link).

The Genographic Project will not test for medical information. Please read the terms and conditions thoroughly before purchase. You must be 18 years or older to purchase a kit. The consent of the parent or guardian is required for the participation of a child under 18 years.


What is known to date according to CeCe MORE's blog(external link)):
The chip has a little over 12,000 Y-DNA SNP. Ten thousand of them are quite unique and "never been published before." To begin, the team created probes for all 862 Y-SNP tree current YCC 2010. She then contacted the research centers around the world and asked them to provide a list of all Y-SNP they discovered, including L SNP, SNP and SNP Z family or private. Probes to detect were also obtained. SNPs discovered by citizen scientists have also been included.

- Several new terminal branches are well tested. According to Bennett Greenspan, the test will be able to completely replace the Deep Clade test currently offered by Family Tree DNA.
- The SNPs found in the program "Walk Through the Y" at FTDNA will be included.
- The tree YCC 2010 included 862 SNPs. Tested by the new tree cover geno2 6153 SNPs.

MtDNA variations
The chip also includes more than 3200 SNP mtDNA. They began by creating probes for the highest frequency of SNPs of mtDNA 3352 Family Tree DNA and GenBank. According to Elliott Greenspan, the difficulty level was significantly increased due to the variability in the mitochondrial DNA. It was necessary to create about 31,000 probes to cover all of the variation that can be found in the surrounding areas of support. Ultimately, they were able to detect about 3200 of them, and therefore they can determine about 90% of haplogroups known at this stage.

SNP Autosomal and X-chromosome
More than 130 000 SNPs autosomal and X-DNA SNPs were selected
- AIMS collected from the literature
- Objectives identified by two methods
- Contribution of Family Tree DNA
- Identified in random order
Ancestry informative markers (AIMS) are SNPs that showed significant correlation with ethnicity between groups. About 75000 AIMs were chosen from nearly 450 people across the world. Approximately half of these objectives have been collected from two dozen papers published and the rest were calculated from data sets public and private. Many of these datasets populations have not been studied for this purpose, so they used two algorithms to develop new and never used AIM: infocalc by Rosenberg and private algorithm developed by Dr. Elhaik called "AIMsFinder" (APC approach). Dr. Elhaik personally collected more than 300 sets of population data from which they had genotypic data from 30,000 to over a million base pairs and is very exhaustive pairwise comparisons difficult to distinguish between people build one single database AIMS.

They also wanted to address the question of how the interbreeding took place between modern humans and older hominids. Once again, they collected all SNP relevant existing literature on the subject, including those on the chip. However, they wanted to go further so they used a new approach. They identified areas where modern humans and Neanderthals shared derived allele where Denisovan and share the ancestral chimp and then repeated the exercise for alleles derived in Denisovan but not Neanderthal and Chimp. Eventually, they collected about 30,000 SNPs as they feel can help to identify the intersections between early hominids and modern humans.

To order go to http://bit.ly/OwY9g6(external link)

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